19 Mar

Peter wept

Category: Sound Thinking
By: Ken Myers
Published: 03/19/21

Poetry and music from the sixteenth century imagining the sorrow of St. Peter in recognizing his betrayal of Jesus 

“When noble Peter, who had sworn that
midst a thousand spears and a thousand swords
he would die beside his beloved Lord,
saw that, overcome by cowardice, his faith
had failed him in his great moment of need,
the grief and shame, and contrition
for his own failure and Christ’s suffering,
pierced his breast with a thousand darts.”

So opens the 42-stanza poem by Luigi Tansillo (1510–1568), Lagrime di San Pietro,“Tears of Saint Peter.” Originally published in 1560, portions of this eloquent expression of grief were set to music — in a set of 21 haunting “spiritual madrigals” — by Orlande de Lassus (1530–1594).

The moment at the center of the poem is an imagined one: what if Jesus had looked Peter in the eye immediately in the moment following the latter’s betrayal?

“Three times had he sworn
— to the bold, insistent maid, to the servant,
and to the cruel throng — that he had never been
a follower of his Lord, nor did he know him;
then the persistent rooster announced the day,
called to bear witness;
and now aware of his great failure,
Peter looked at Christ and their eyes met.”

The response to the accusation in the eyes of Jesus is a torrent of tears.

“Like a snowflake which, having lain frozen
and hidden in deep valleys all winter,
and then in springtime, warmed by the sun,
melts and flows into streams;
thus the fear which had lain like ice
in Peter’s heart and made him repress the truth,
now that Christ turned His eyes on him,
melted and was changed into tears.”

You can read the text to this work and listen to a performance of it on this page at Cantica sacra, the website I edit as part of my work as music director in my parish. I have also written about this work, and about some penetential Psalm settings by Lassus, for Touchstone. You may read that column — “Eloquent Lamentation” — here.

12 Mar

The novelty of “science” and “religion”

Category: Sound Thinking
By: Ken Myers
Published: 03/12/21

Peter Harrison on the contingency of boundaries that divide our lives

“So familiar are the concepts ‘science’ and ‘religion,’ and so central to Western culture have been the activities and achievements that are usually labeled ‘religious’ and ‘scientific,’ that it is natural to assume that they have been enduring features of the cultural landscape of the West. But this view is mistaken. To be sure, it is true that in the West from the sixth century BC attempts were made to describe the world systematically, to understand the fundamental principles behind natural phenomena, and to provide naturalistic accounts of the causes operating in the cosmos. Yet, as we shall see, these past practices bear only a remote resemblance to modern science. It is also true that almost from the beginning of recorded history many societies have engaged in acts of worship, set aside sacred spaces and times, and entertained beliefs about transcendental realities and proper conduct. But it is only in recent times that these beliefs and activities have been bounded by a common notion ‘religion,’ and have been set apart from the ‘nonreligious’ or secular domains of human existence.

“In pointing out that ‘science’ and ‘religion’ are concepts of relatively recent coinage, I intend to do more than make a historical claim about the anachronistic application of modern concepts to past errors. What I have in mind is not only to set out the story of how these categories ‘science’ and ‘religion’ emerge in Western consciousness, but also to show how the manner of their emergence can provide crucial insights into their present relations. In much the same way that we can make sense of certain contemporary international conflicts by attending to the historical processes through which national boundaries were carved out of a geographical territory, so too, with the respective territories of religion and the natural sciences. Just as the borders of nation-states are often more a consequence of imperial ambitions, political expediency, and historical contingencies than of a conscious attending to more ‘natural’ faultiness of geography, culture, and ethnicity — think in this context of the borders of the modern state of Israel — so the compartmentalization of modern Western culture that gave rise to these distinct notions ‘science’ and ‘religion’ resulted not from a rational or dispassionate consideration of how to divide cultural life along natural fracture lines, but to a significant degree has been to do with political power — broadly conceived — and the accidents of history.”

— from Peter Harrison, The Territories of Science and Religion (University of Chicago Press, 2015). Peter Harrison taked about this book on Volume 131 of the Journal. Other excerpts from this book may be read here and here.

12 Mar

Shrinking sources of causality

Category: Sound Thinking
By: Ken Myers
Published: 03/12/21

David Bentley Hart on the loss of a recognition of inherent meaning in the natural world 

“For the philosophers and scientists of premodern times, stretching back to the beginning of philosophical and scientific thought in the West, no absolute division could be drawn between physical and metaphysical explanations of the cosmos, or at least between material and ‘spiritual’ causes. The universe was shaped and sustained by an intricate interweaving of immanent and transcendent agencies and powers. It was the effect of an inseparable union of what Daniel Dennett likes to call ‘cranes’ and ‘sky-hooks’: that is, both causes that rise up from below, so to speak, and causes that descend from above. The principal way in which late antique and medieval thinkers understood the order of nature was in terms of Aristotle’s four categories of causation: the material, formal, efficient, and final. The first of these is simply the underlying matter from which any given thing is formed — say, the marble upon which a sculptor works or the glass from which a bottle is made — the lowest and most ubiquitous level of which is ‘prime matter,’ the substrate of all physical things, so absolutely indeterminate as to be nothing in itself but pure potentiality, with no actuality independent of the forms that give it substance and shape. The formal cause is what makes a particular substance the kind of thing it is — say, a statue or bottle — along with all the attributes proper to that kind of substance, such as cold, static solidity, and representational form, or such as fragility, translucency, and fluid capacity. The efficient cause is the fashioning or prompting agency that brings form and matter together in a single substance — say, the sculptor or glass blower, along with the instruments of his craft. And the final cause is the ultimate aim or purpose or effect of the thing, the use for which it is intended or the good that it serves or the consequence to which it is innately (even if unconsciously) directed, which in a sense draws efficient causality toward itself — say, commemoration of a great event or evocation of aesthetic delight, or the storage and transport of wine or whisky. Perhaps, however, I ought not to choose only human artifacts for my example, since in the classical view all finite things are produced by the workings of these four kinds of causality: elephants, mountains, and stars no less than statues or bottles. And then, beyond all these four, at least in the Christian period, there was another kind of causality, not always explicitly delineated from the others as it should have been but far more exorbitantly different from them than they were from one another. This we might call the ‘ontological’ cause, which alone has the power not only to make, but to create from nothing: that infinite source of being which donates existence to every contingent thing, and to the universe as a whole, without which nothing — not even the barest possibilities of things — could exist.

“We are not much in the habit today, of course, of thinking of ‘form’ or ‘finality’ as causes at all, especially not outside the realm of human fabrication. As a rule, we think of physical realities as caused exclusively by other physical realities, operating as prior and external forces and simply transferring energy from themselves to their effects. We may grant that, where a rational agent is involved, purposes and plans also may act as causes in an analogous or metaphorical sense; but nature we tend to see as a mindless physical process, matter in motion, from which form and purpose emerge accidentally, as consequences rather than causes. This is in large part because the intellectual world in which we have been reared is one whose master discourses — its sciences, philosophies, and ideologies — evolved in the aftermath of the displacement of the ‘Aristotelian’ world by the ‘mechanical philosophy,’ as well as by the more inductive and empirical scientific method that began to take shape in late scholastic thought and that achieved a kind of coherent synthesis in the early modern period. . . .

“It is not true, strictly speaking, that the rapid and constant progress of scientific understanding and achievement in the modern age has been the result solely of simple unadorned empirical research, but very little of it would have come about apart from the revision of scientific thinking that the new empirical approach demanded. This makes it all the more poignantly sad that, as was probably inevitable, the new anti-metaphysical method soon hypertrophied into a metaphysics of its own. Over the course of a very short time, relatively speaking (a few generations at most), the heuristic metaphor of a purely mechanical cosmos became a kind of ontology, a picture of reality as such. The reasons for this were many — scientific, social, ideological, even theological — but the result was fairly uniform: Western persons quickly acquired the habit of seeing the universe not simply as something that can be investigated according to a mechanistic paradigm, but as in fact a machine. They came to see nature not as a reality guided and unified from within by higher or more spiritual causes like formality and finality, but as something merely factitiously assembled and arranged from without by some combination of efficient forces, and perhaps by one supreme external efficient cause — a divine designer and maker, a demiurge, the God of the machine, whom even many pious Christians began to think of as God.”

— from David Bentley Hart, The Experience of God: Being, Consciousness, Bliss (Yale University Press, 2013). Hart discussed this book on Volume 122 of the Journal. Another excerpt from his book is here.

5 Mar

What authorizes authority?

Category: Sound Thinking
By: Ken Myers
Published: 03/05/21

Victor Lee Austin: “All authority comes from God and no thing, no being, no realm is outside his dominion.”

In chapter 2 of his 2010 book, Up with Authority, Victor Lee Austin offers a description of this misunderstood (and largely abandoned) concept.

“In English, the word has an obvious root: ‘author.’ We should understand this authorship as at once active and passive. An authority, who is able to ‘authorize’ the actions of others, is at the same time one whose own actions are authorized. So does etymology place us at once within a world of interconnections. Authorities are not lone rangers or loose cannons; they are not disconnected and unaccountable. To be an authority is to be authorized by someone or something beyond oneself. Thus the centurion who has appealed to Jesus to heal his servant asked Jesus not to come to his house: ‘only speak the word, and my servant will be healed.’ This itself is an expression of faith in Jesus, that he is able to heal at a distance, simply by speaking. But the centurion’s insight goes further:. ‘I also am a man under authority,’ he says, ‘with soldiers under me; and I say to one, “Go,” and he goes, and to another, “Come,” and he comes.’ The centurion has authority because he is under authority. It is striking that he doesn’t say to Jesus, ‘You and I are both authorities in our various realms; I am able to command and others do what I say; you too can command spirits and elements and they do what you say.’ Rather, he says first, ‘I also am a man under authority.’ His faith is that he sees Jesus as ‘a man under authority,’ implicitly, the authority of the father.

“The Greek is exousia. Is it fanciful to see embedded here the word for ‘being,’ ousia, and thus a rooting of authority in our nature? Authority, exousia, is formed from exesti, a verb that exists only in the impersonal third person and has for its earliest meaning ‘it is allowed, it is in one’s power, is possible.’ And exousia in ordinary Greek means the ‘ability to perform an action,’ early extended to a right of action or a right to disposal, particularly as that right was given from above. Nonetheless, we can note that this word that comes to mean power in the sense of authority is compounded from ek and ousia. That etymology gives us ‘out of being’ or ‘from being,’ suggesting for the philosophical mind that human authority comes out of human being, that it is deeply in accord with our being as humans that we have authority.

“The word becomes important in the Christian Scriptures. Gerhard Kittel, in his masterful Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, writes that exousia ‘is the power displayed in the fact that a command is obeyed.’ From the beginning, authority is related to obedience; authority is not coercive (for the obedience extracted under, for example, torture is hardly true obedience), yet neither is authority constituted by obedience. We might picture authority as a ‘downward’ governance that is ‘displayed,’ but not caused, by an ‘upward’ obedience. According to Kittel’s study, in the New Testament exousia is ‘the power which decides’ but which functions only ‘in a legally ordered whole’ as a power given ultimately by God. Authority is a species of power, namely, a decisive power; nonetheless, the power of authority is never isolated from a divinely authorizing context. Kittel also emphasizes that exousia is active, a performative concept, ‘operative in ordered relationships’ and ‘cannot be separated from its continuous exercise.’ In the Christian community it ‘denote[s] the freedom’ that comes from the community’s divine authorization. But strictly speaking the word means ‘the absolute possibility of action which is proper to God.’ God’s authority, his ‘absolute possibility of action,’ can be seen in many places, including nature and, interestingly, even in God’s tolerance of Satan’s rule, ‘the power of evil . . . [that is] yet encompassed by the divine overruling.’ Christ has divine exousia, his ‘divinely given power and authority to act,’ which is identical with his own freedom, his ‘own rule in free agreement with the Father.’ And exousia is given to the Church as its authority and freedom as the community given ‘existence and nature [by] Christ.’

“What is impressive is the cosmic unity that runs throughout this New Testament concept of authority. All authority comes from God and no thing, no being, no realm is outside his dominion. God’s authority bestows power and freedom and is found preeminently in Christ and, after Christ, in the community that is in him.

“Thus the Christian Scriptures give theological depth to our prior intuitions, sparked by the English and Greek etymologies: that authority has to do with a web of authorizations, and that that has to do with the power or capacity to achieve fullness as a human being.”

— from Victor Lee Austin, Up with Authority: Why We Need Authority to Flourish as Human Beings (T & T Clark, 2010). Austin was interviewed on Volume 107 of the Journal.

5 Mar

Freed from the burden of choice

Category: Sound Thinking
By: Ken Myers
Published: 03/05/21

Writing in the mid-1990s, Alan Ehrenhalt reflects on the relationship between authority and community

“Most of us in America believe a few simple propositions that seem so clear and self-evident they scarcely need to be said.

“Choice is a good thing in life, and the more of it we have, the happier we are. Authority is inherently suspect; nobody should have the right to tell others what to think or how to behave. Sin isn’t personal, it’s social; individual human beings are creatures of the society they live in.

“Those ideas could stand as the manifesto of an entire generation in America, the generation born in the baby-boom years and now in its thirties and forties. They are powerful ideas. They all have the ring of truth. But in the past quarter-century, taken to excess, they have caused a great deal of trouble.

“The worship of choice has brought us a world of restless dissatisfaction, in which nothing we choose seems good enough to be permanent and we are unable to resist the endless pursuit of new selections — in work, in marriage, in front of the television set. The suspicion of authority has meant the erosion of standards of conduct and civility, visible most clearly in schools where teachers who dare to discipline pupils risk a profane response. The repudiation of sin has given us a collection of wrongdoers who insist that they are not responsible for their actions because they have been dealt bad cards in life. When we declare that there are no sinners, we are a step away from deciding that there is no such thing as right and wrong.

“We have grown fond of saying that there is no free lunch, but we forget that it applies to moral as well as economic terms. Stable relationships, civil classrooms, safe streets — the ingredients of what we call community — come at a price. The price is limits on the choices we can make as individuals, rules and authorities who can enforce them, and a willingness to accept the fact that there are bad people in the world and that sin exists in even the best of us. The price is not low, but the life it makes possible is no small achievement. . . .

“In the past generation, we have moved whole areas of life, large and small, out of the realm of permanence and authority and into the realm of change and choice. . . .

“Most of us continue to celebrate the explosion of choice and personal freedom in our time. There are few among us who would be willing to say it is a bad bargain, or who mourn for the rigidities and constrictions of American life in the 1950s.

“A remarkable number of us, however, do seem to mourn for something about that time. We talk nostalgically of the loyalties and lasting relationships that characterized those days: of the old neighborhoods with mom-and-pop-storekeepers who knew us by name; of not having to lock the house at night because no one would think of entering it; of knowing that there would be a neighbor home, whatever the time of day or night, to help us out or take us in if we happened to be in trouble.

“There is a longing, among millions of Americans now reaching middle age, for a sense of community that they believe existed during their childhoods and does not exist now. That is why there is a modern movement called communitarianism that has attracted many adherents and much attention. . . .

“The very word community has found a place, however fuzzy and imprecise, all over the ideological spectrum of the present decade. On the far left it is a code word for a more egalitarian society in which the oppressed of all colors are included and made the beneficiaries of a more generous social welfare system that commits far more than the current amount to education, public health, and the eradication of poverty. On the far right it signifies an emphasis on individual self-discipline that would replace the welfare state with a private rebirth of personal responsibility. In the middle it seems to reflect a much simpler yearning for safety, stability, and a network of reliable relationships. Despite these differing perceptions, though, the general idea of community has been all over the pages of popular journalism and political discourse in the first half of the 1990s.

“Authority is something else again. It evokes no similar feelings of nostalgia. Few would dispute that it has eroded over the last generation. . . .

“Authority and community have in fact unraveled together, but few mourn the passing of authority. To most Americans in the baby-boom generation, it will always be a word with sinister connotations, calling forth a rush of uncomfortable memories about the schools, churches, and families in which they grew up. Rebellion against those memories constituted the defining event of their generational lives. Wherever on the political spectrum this generation has landed, it has brought its suspicion of authority with it. ‘Authority,’ says P. J. O’Rourke, speaking for his baby-boom cohort loud and clear, ‘has always attracted the lowest elements in the human race.’

“The suspicion of authority and the enshrinement of personal choice are everywhere in the American society of the 1990s. . . .

“There has . . . been a discussion about authority among political philosophers in the past two decades, and its tone tells us something. It has been a debate in which scholars who profess to find at least some value in the concept have struggled to defend themselves against libertarian critics who question whether there is any such thing as legitimate authority at all, even for duly constituted democratic governments. ‘All authority is equally illegitimate,’ the philosopher Robert Paul Wolff wrote in a landmark 1970 book, In Defense of Anarchy. ‘The primary obligation of man,’ Wolff argued, ‘is autonomy, the refusal to be ruled.’ It is only a slight exaggeration to say that the record of debate on this subject since 1970 has consisted largely of responses to Wolff, most of them rather tentative and halfhearted. . . .

“If there were an intellectual movement of authoritarians to match the communitarians, they would be the modern equivalent of a subversive group. The elites of the country, left and right alike, would regard them as highly dangerous. The America of the 1990s may be a welter of confused values, but on one point we speak with unmistakable clarity: we have become emancipated from social authority as we used to know it.

“We don’t want the 1950s back. What we want is to edit them. We want to keep the safe streets, the friendly grocers, and the milk and cookies, while blotting out the political bosses, the tyrannical headmasters, the inflexible rules, and the lectures on 100 percent Americanism and the sinfulness of dissent. But there is no easy way to have an orderly world without somebody making the rules by which order is preserved. Every dream we have about re-creating community in the absence of authority will turn out to be a pipe dream in the end. . . .

“To worship choice and community together is to misunderstand what community is all about. Community means not subjecting every action in life to the burden of choice, but rather accepting the familiar and reaping the psychological benefits of having one less calculation to make in the course of the day.”

— from Alan Ehrenhalt, The Lost City: Discovering the Forgotten Virtues of Community in the Chicago of the 1950s (Basic Books, 1995).