"This current battle is the latest engagement in a very long war—the struggle over the nature of man. It is a battle which has been precipitated by the rise of new and powerful sciences dealing with man: physiology (particularly of the brain), psychology, sociology and that whole cluster of disciplines variously referred to as the behavioral sciences or sometimes the social sciences. What is at stake in this battle is the very notion of personhood. Are human beings persons in the sense in which that word has been traditionally understood?" C. Stephen Evans, Preserving the Person
In Preserving the Person: A Look at the Human Sciences, C. Stephen Evans examines whether or not the more recent scientific view of man complements the older personalistic view of man; the question he strives to answer is: how do contemporary explanations of personhood compare with how it has been understood traditionally? In the first chapter of the work, "The Problem: The Attack on the Person," he explains what the two views of man entail: the personalistic view understands people as agents who use reason to make choices; who can be held accountable for their actions; and who can be understood best through the eyes of several disciplines, philosophy, sociology, and theology included. The scientific view, on the other hand, understands people as organisms best explained by systems and efficient causality, whose actions are determined by forces in the natural order. Evans notes that the remaining chapters of the book explore the complementarity (or lack thereof) of the views in more depth. Chapters two through five examine what various disciplines of science reveal about man, and what they espouse regarding people as agents. Chapters six and seven explain what is at stake if the older view of man is lost, and chapters eight through twelve develop a contemporary model for thinking about man that does not disregard either the personalistic or scientific view. [Posted June 2005, ALG]
Leon Kass, Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics (Encounter Books, 2002)
"We need to realize that there is more at stake in the biological revolution than just saving life or avoiding death and suffering. We must also strive to protect and preserve human dignity and the ideas and practices that keep us human. This book is an invitation to remember these human and moral concerns, concerns that are themselves manifestations of what is humanly most worth preserving."
—Leon Kass, Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity
In Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics, Leon Kass extends a deliberately-reasoned, perspicuous, and urgent invitation to study the beautiful, mundane, and messy realities of human nature that are vulnerable to burgeoning biotechnologies. The book comprises an introduction and three sections, the second of which is titled "Ethical Challenges from Biotechnology." In it Kass, the chairman of the President's Council on Bioethics, describes the challenges biomedical science and technology pose to human nature, alongside of which he also describes that of which human nature consists, or, in other words, what makes people human. The particulars he addresses are life and lineage, body and soul, and death and immortality. In the first and third sections of the book, he explores, respectively, the poles of the biotechnologies argument, technology and ethics, and the "underlying scientific quest." The introduction sets the stage for the rest of the work, explaining that all societies are facing a "posthuman" future and thus need a richer understanding of human nature in order to navigate it wisely. [Posted June 2005, ALG]
Malcolm Jeeves, "Portraits of Human Nature: Scientific & Theological" (Regent College, recorded in 2002)
Available on CD through the Regent Bookstore, 800-334-3279 or www.regentbookstore.com. A brief question and answer session followed Jeeves's lecture and is included on the CD recording.
In "Portraits of Human Nature: Scientific & Theological," professor emeritus Malcolm Jeeves analyzes what science can contribute to the debate about human nature and dualism. He discusses what people have thought about human nature, how the Imago Dei is manifested in mankind, and spirituality, all in conjunction with scientific discoveries throughout the centuries. The collective evidence, he states, overwhelmingly points away from thinking of humans as dualist beings and towards regarding them as unified wholes. The glimpses of reality science affords reveal that humans are a mysterious unity of body and mind. When that revelation is considered alongside the glimpses of reality that theology affords, Jeeves notes, it is possible to see that human nature is largely defined by people's capacity for relationships with God and others, and that people's spirituality—their practice of their relationship with God—is embodied and thus can change as bodies degenerate or are traumatized.
Jeeves is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of St. Andrews and was President of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's National Academy of Science and Letters. "Portraits of Human Nature: Scientific and Theological" was recorded in 2002 at Regent College in Vancouver, British Columbia.
A Literary Aside:
For centuries, various strains of philosophy in Western civilization have assumed a dual nature in human beings, pitting the mortal flesh against the immortal soul in a battle over which has more eternal importance. As long as these philosophies have existed, however, there have been additional systems of thought that assume the opposite. Poet John Donne (1572-1631) spoke from within one of those traditions, as the following quote from his Easter sermon in 1623 demonstrates:
"Never therefore dispute against thine own happinesse; never say, God asks the heart, that is, the soule, and therefore rewards the soule, or punishes the soule, and hath no respect to the body; Nec augeramus cogitationes a collegio carnis, saies Tertullian, Never go about to separate the thoughts of the heart, from the colledge, from the fellowship of the body; Siquidem in carne, & cum carne, & per carnem agitur, quicquid ab anima emaculetur, All that the soule does, it does in, and with, and by the body. And therefore, (saies he also) Caro abluitur, ut anima emaculetur, The body is washed in baptisme, but it is that the soule might be made cleane; Cargo ungitur, ut anima consecretur, In all unctions, whether that which was then in use in Baptisme, or that which was in use at our transmigration, and passage out of this world, the body was anointed, that the soule might be consecrated; Caro signatur, (saies Tertullian still) ut anima muniatur; The body is signed with the Crosse, that the soule might be armed against tentations; And againe, Caro de Corpore Christi Vescitur, ut anima de Deo saginetur; My body received the body of Christ, that my soule might partake of his merits. He extends it into many particulars, and summes up all thus, Non possunt in mercede separari, quæ opera conjungunt, These two, Body, and Soule, cannot be separated for ever, which, whilst they are together, concurre in all that either of them doe." [Posted June 2005, ALG]
Quotes, paraphrases, and other references in these notes are taken from the following sources:
--Kurt F. Reinhardt, The Theological Novel of Modern Europe: An Analysis of Masterpieces by Eigth Authors (Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1969)
--John E. Cooke, Georges Bernanos: A Study of Christian Commitment (Avebury Publishing Co., 1981)
--Gerda Blumenthal, The Poetic Imagination of Georges Bernanos: An Essay in Interpretation (Johns Hopkins, 1965)
Georges Bernanos was born in Paris on February 20, 1888. His father was a petit bourgeois (member of the lower middle class, a servant to the middle class), he had an older sister, and he grew up as an avid reader. He grew up as a practicing Catholic (his father would read to the family the polemical works of the ultras) and never wavered in his faith. At his first communion the fear of death invaded his being—it never left him and decisively influenced his writing. He received his bachelor's degree in 1906 from the Junior Seminary at Bourges. He began writing short stories in 1907. Because of his father's and teachers' influence, and his own temperament, he became an ultra, i.e. a Catholic who wouldn't accept the democratic sentiments of the secularized masses and who wanted the monarchy and the Church's place in French society restored (in addition to being attached to the restoration of the monarchy, he was also attached to the myths of Eternal France and the memory of Joan of Arc). He went to law school in Paris and became a member of the political-religious party Action Française, which represented the Catholic right wing in France and championed the monarchist idea (and from which he withdrew in 1919, partly because of the lack of charity exhibited by the movement's intellectual leader, Charles Maurras). He assumed the editorship of the small polemic paper L'Avant-Garde de Normandie in Rouen, for which he penned the political editorials, and in which he published his first three novelettes. Bernanos married the chairman of the women's section of the A.F., Jeanne Talbert d'Arc, who was a direct descendant of the family of Joan of Arc; they had six children together and moved frequently. Bernanos served as an enlisted volunteer in WWI. He was ambivalent about war and his time in the war, which profoundly affected his spiritual development (it did not, however, alter his political allegiance); at the end of it, he realized the need for a steady income and accepted a position as a life-insurance agent in 1922. It is truly paradoxical to picture Bernanos, the fierce opponent of all bourgeois security, the advocate of risk and daring, a man who all his life never knew how to deal with money or with any practical household problems, traveling across the French countryside, trying to persuade people to buy life-insurance policies. Bernanos could make such an existence tolerable only by submerging himself ever more deeply in the world of his dreams. We see him at work, trying to translate his dreams into the written word, indefatigably writing, in railroad cars, in waiting-rooms, in hotel rooms, in the cafes (Reinhardt).
Much of his attention in the 1920s was taken up with his denunciation of Modernism, and his first novels, Under Satan's Sun, L'Imposture, and La Joie, were particularly inspired by this hatred. He was friends with the writer and lyric poet Robert Vallery-Radot, and his admired masters were Balzac, Léon Bloy, Barbey d'Aurevilly, Dostoevsky, Joseph Conrad, Charles Péguy, Pirandello, and Marcel Proust. He severed ties with the insurance company in the late 1920s, and published his first book, Under Satan's Sun, in 1926. It was soon followed by the double novel The Fraud and Joy.
Bernanos's first critical work was published in 1931 under the title The Great Fear of the Right-Thinking People. He had a bad motorbike accident in 1934 that left him crippled: Bernanos, the arch foe of modern technology, had been an enthusiastic motorcyclist. Near Montbéliard, trying to avoid a collision with a car, to spare the life of a child on the other side of the road, he threw himself and his motorcycle against a stone wall and broke both legs. Henceforth he had to walk on crutches (Reinhardt).
Bernanos left France in 1934 for Majorca and in two years produced a trilogy of novels, A Crime, An Evil Dream, and The Dead Community (aka Monsieur Ouine), which are his gloomiest works. He followed these with The Diary of a Country Priest, which he loved as if it weren't his own work.
Bernanos returned to France in 1938, but left again in July (after being disgusted by the Allie capitulation at Munich and anticipating the Nazis invasion of France) for Paraguay and then Brazil. He was happy in Brazil, and there wrote for resistance papers while also working on one of his most beautiful books, Les enfants humiliés (published posthumously in 1949). His critical works from Brazil include Letter Addressed to the British, Meditations on the Present Age, and France against the Robots. In 1945 he left Brazil for Tunisia, and there he wrote his last novel, shortly before returning to France and dying. Bernanos' last and perhaps purest creation, The Dialogues of the Carmelites, which he completed shortly before his death and which was a great success on the stage. It is essentially an apotheosis of mystical anguish and love, set in the frame of the Carmelite pattern of spirituality (Reinhardt). He died in Neuilly, France, on July 5, 1948, from liver cancer. One of his friends wrote this about his: 'He died in a state of extraordinary peace. All his physical and mental anguish he had overcome in his faith. . . . He had once again become the child which in his innermost essence he had never ceased to be.'
Additional excerpts on Bernanos from the Reinhardt, Cooke, and Blumenthal books
"Bernanos' thought depended greatly upon a series of Christian assumptions about the nature and extent of human involvement in the process of Redemption and the way in which grace had an effect on the individual and collective experience. A natural extension of this simple belief was the conviction that there existed privileged beings who were specifically chosen by God to assume the task of saving the social organism from spiritual decay and whose personal salvation depended a great deal on the success of this wider vocation. Bernanos believed that the only worthwhile society—and the only one deserving the title of civilization‐was one which found its inspiration in the eternal order of Providence. Its masters were literally the agents of God, empowered to transmit constant spiritual values from one generation to the next.
"On the other hand, if the established elites were tempted to ignore this prime responsibility and to forsake the spiritual in favour of the ephemeral comforts of the temporal, the harmony of God's creation became threatened by the inevitable corruption of His Ideas, and the movement towards the Redemption was stifled. Bernanos' analysis of history led him to the conclusion that this process had taken place when the order of Christendom had given way to the impersonal domination of money and the stultifying conventions of the modern industrialized world. The ascendancy of the bourgeoisie, the advent of the mass society, and the growth of ideologies were in such contrast to his view of the harmony of the Middle Ages that he could only attribute the transformation to Satan's positive intervention in the world. Since the Industrial Revolution and the collapse of the old aristocracy, Europe had returned to the Dark Ages" (Cooke).
"Bernanos chose the literary form to realize and express his vision of man because it enabled him to imitate, however imperfectly, the creative dynamism of God's will. The artist's search for expression represents in a most tangible form the human search for the absolute, and the manner in which the spirit emerges from the image—the transmission of the Word into Flesh—provides his most important challenge" (Cooke).
Bernanos was a visionary who saw beyond the narrow horizons of his surroundings, and he expressed "the unconscious feelings of a generation caught in the cross-fire of harsh events which it could neither control nor even fully understand, and the lingering spiritual convictions and certainties of an earlier, and for some, more leisured age. [He searched] to reconcile tangible uncertainty with intangible certainty, and the confusions and dilemmas which this paradox produced in both spiritual and social attitudes . . ." (Cooke).
"Bernanos' primary concern remained man: man in his dignity, forever consecrated because Christ had become man. And man, himself redeemed, was called to redeem others. But to be able to do this he must be free: he must show forth what Martin Luther called 'the freedom of a Christian man.' And the ideal type of a free man was for Bernanos the Christian knight, or, in an even more purified incarnation, the Christian saint, the saint of the type of Joan of Arc" (Reinhardt).
"Most important, however, was for him the restoration and re-formation of the individual human being. Without this all attempts at social and economic reform will be doomed" (Reinhardt).
"The truth is that the faith of Bernanos was neither logical nor systematic but rather dynamic and synthetic. And his faith made it possible for him to envisage clearly and deeply the 'mystery of iniquity,' to penetrate with his glance into the depths of evil and sin. The characters of his novels emerge from the mysterious abysses of either iniquity or grace and thus completely lack the distinctness and transparency of Cartesian logical constructs" (Reinhardt).
"The novels of Bernanos are much more than mere narratives: they are authentic interpretations of human existence as it unfolds within the frame of contemporary life. The author asserted repeatedly and emphatically that he did not regard himself as a theologian and that for this reason (if for no other) faith could never assume the form of a tranquilizing intellectual systematic construct. He regarded the 'systematic mind' as a sort of insanity. When philosophers and theologians pretended to simplify matters by systematizing them, he thought that by making this attempt they merely confused everything. Life, contrariwise, which seems to confuse things, actually simplifies all complexities" (Reinhardt).
"More than any other modern Christian literary artist Bernanos was the poet and eulogist of both grace and freedom. Like Léon Bloy, he was 'a pilgrim of the Absolute.' He pictured himself as standing 'between the radiant and the dark angel,' as looking at both ultimately 'with a mad hunger for the absolute.' He thus embodied in his creations not only the praise of the grace offered human beings but also the demonian rebellion of those who stubbornly, yet freely, resist the offer. However, when he depicts the tortures of the sinner and the rebel, he does so to show in the extreme bitterness of a seemingly lost heart and soul a latent receptivity for the overwhelming sweetness of grace. What Bernanos wrote to a young French author applies to himself: 'If God demands that you bear witness, be prepared to suffer much, to doubt yourself unceasingly, in success and in failure. For thus understood—as a testimonial—the calling of a writer is no longer a trade but an adventure, above all a spiritual adventure. But all spiritual adventures are Golgathas' . . ." (Reinhardt).
"A Christian should try to look at evil not with his own eyes but, as it were, with God's eyes, that is, in that state of mind which is generated by prayer. Man cannot force evil to retreat by looking at it with a fixed stare, for if he does he will never escape its strange and seductive fascination" (Reinhardt).
"One problem which never failed to arouse Bernanos' interest and to evoke his comments is that of science and technology" (Reinhardt).
From one of Bernanos's letters: "The modern world has mutilated and disfigured art by concentrating on insignificant detail, reducing art and literature to ironic anecdotes, small confectionary. . . . What is lacking is the principle of incarnation. Art has no longer its home either in heaven or on earth or in hell. Our present day literature is a literature without a world; it is out of joint like everything else. It is without passion and without insanity, like the devil. It lacks the stormy majesty of great passion, and the deeper reason for this lack is that men have lost the vision of those immense spaces which are traversed by the Saints—the Saints who appear on the surface so tranquil, so waterproof. But there is hidden in all human inwardness an oceanic mobility, a striving for perfection, which is a way without end, the way of the entire creation, with eternity as the goal. It is a way of messages, of universal communications, of participations in truths, in beauties, in fruitful anxieties . . ." (Reinhardt).
"This then was what he called his 'impossible' task: to build lasting edifices with the most fragile and ephemeral material, to build monuments of the supernatural with the tools of a trade which like no other was marked by human vanity and pride. For he knew full well that he was only a writer, no saint, no extraordinary human being. He also knew that he was not of the race and type of those men whom he portrayed in his novels. He regarded himself as a 'street singer, living in exile in a land without streets' (in Brazil)" (Reinhardt).
He thought that ". . . the contemplative and the active life should be intertwined or, as other Christian mystics expressed the same thought, that 'Martha and Mary must work together' in a cooperative effort for the benefit of all" (Reinhardt).
One of his main images is water, and Blumenthal contends that he uses it to express two spiritual poles.
"It is that at the very heart of a world on the march toward the Kingdom of God, and most particularly in the soul of man himself, the Usurper is at work. With wrathful vigilance he exerts his immense power to arrest the dynamic movement of a steadily unfolding creation and to reverse the divinely inspired élan in which man and his earth struggle toward fullness of being in the Father by tempting them to turn back on themselves and slide or 'return' into the enredeemed and hence deadly abyss" (Blumenthal).
"The duel between the two movements of opening out and blossoming and of closing in and 'returning' to nothingness constitutes the fundamental Bernanosian dramatic conflict" (Blumenthal).
"Whereas his vision of the goal—the desolate human landscape redeemed by grace and become a flourishing land of fountains—has steadied him and deepened his resources, so the backward glance of self-reflection pries him loose from reality and pulls him back, unknown to himself, into the enveloping slumber and darkness of the world's and his own origin.
"The lure of this backward glance is Satan's greatest triumph. In the Bernanosian drama, it is the triumph of the tomb over creation, of the infinite, inimical water over earth" (Blumenthal).
"Between the evil infinity of the untamed sea and the pathetic finiteness of a barren, unwatered soil, the great bulk of Bernanos' humanity appears simply to miss its challenge and goal and to suffer an ignominious 'return'" (Blumenthal).
"In passing unharmed across the sea and in releasing the hidden fountains in the desert, these children of grace free both water and earth from the curse of death. Through them, Georges Bernanos expresses his hope for man. In the wholeness of their being, they are men in the full biblical sense of the word. They are like masterpieces of clay, firm yet pliable, strong yet tender, which resist both dissolution and petrification and at the same time respond to the slightest touch of their creator. Few as they are, they bind the world together, keeping the road open and mankind on the march toward the Kingdom" (Blumenthal). [Posted May 2005, ALG]
A sampling of sources from The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity at Trinity International University, and from Michael Poore, executive director of The Humanitas Project:
A sampling of sources from The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity at Trinity International University, and from Michael Poore, executive director of The Humanitas Project:
—Wesley J. Smith, Forced Exit: The Slippery Slope from Assisted Suicide to Legalized Murder (Times Books, 1997)
—Gary P. Stewart, et al., Basic Questions on Suicide and Euthanasia: Are They Ever Right? (Kregel, 1998)
—Nigel M. de S. Cameron, The New Medicine: Life and Death after Hippocrates (Bioethics Press, reprint 2001)
—Wendell Berry, "Fidelity," published in Fidelity: Five Stories (Pantheon Books, 1993) and That Distant Land: The Collected Stories (Shoemaker & Hoard, 2004)
—C. Ben Mitchell, ed., Aging, Death and the Quest for Immortality (Eerdmans, 2004)
—John F. Kilner, Life on the Line: Ethics, Aging, Ending Patients' Lives, and Allocating Vital Resources (Eerdmans, 1992)
—J. Daryl Charles, "The 'Right to Die' in the Light of Contemporary Rights Rhetoric," published in John F. Kilner, et al., Bioethics and the Future of Medicine: A Christian Appraisal (Eerdmans, 1995)
—Wesley J. Smith, Culture of Death: The Assault on Medical Ethics in America (Encounter Books, 2002)
—Rita Marker, Deadly Compassion: The Death of Ann Humphry and the Truth about Euthanasia (William Morrow & Co., 1993)
—Germain Grisez & Joseph Boyle, Life and Death with Liberty and Justice: A Contribution to the Euthanasia Debate (Notre Dame, 1980)
—Herbert Hendin, Seduced by Death: Doctors, Patients and Assisted Suicide (Norton, 1998)
—Pope John Paul II, Evangelium Vitae, printed in Medical Ethics: Sources of Catholic Teaching (Georgetown University Press, 1999)
—The Ramsey Colloquium, "Always to Care, Never to Kill: A Declaration on Euthanasia," First Things (February 1992): 45-47
—Daniel Callahan, "The Sanctity of Life Seduced: A Symposium on Medical Ethics," First Things (April 1994): 13-27
—Avery Dulles, Russell Hittinger, Richard M. Doerflinger, and Robert P. George, "The Gospel of Life: A Symposium," First Things (October 1995): 32-38
—Michael Uhlmann, "The Legal Logic of Euthanasia," First Things (June/July 1996): 39-43
—William Saletan, "Alternative Sentence: A Counterproposal to Assisted Suicide" Slate (March 3, 2005)
—Richard Weikart, "Killing Them Kindly: Lessons from the Euthanasia Movement," Books & Culture (February 1, 2004)
Organizations to consult for further information include the Patients Rights Council (previously known as the International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide), on-line here, and the President's Council on Bioethics—Aging and End of Life, on-line here. [Posted April 2005, ALG]